Deep groove ball bearings are the most common of all rolling-element bearings. They can sustain radial and axial loads, as well as combined loads including combinations of both loads. Deep groove ball bearings can be subdivided into cylindrical bore types and tapered bore types; conjointly, they may also be classified by their functional features: standard deep groove ball bearings, self-aligning ball bearings, and high-speed deep groove ball bearings. Because of their simple construction and versatile performance characteristics, deep groove ball bearings continue to be widely used in industry today.
Precision deep groove ball bearings are manufactured in various designs. However, the basic configuration of these bearings is largely similar. Two rings, one with teeth on the inner circumference and the other without teeth but having an inside diameter that fits tightly around the balls are assembled either face to face or back to back. The bearing is then mounted into a housing or onto a shaft using dowel pins.
When two parts rotate relative to each other, they create frictional resistance which tends to cause wear; this tendency increases at high speeds. Deep groove ball bearings can accommodate heavy loads when rotating at low speeds due to their higher load for their size when compared with other types of bearings.
The use of a lubricant will significantly reduce the frictional resistance and consequently the wear on this type of bearing.
Apart from providing a significant reduction in friction between the balls and rings, the lubricant also reduces corrosion and protects against contamination from dust or gases. This is particularly important when the bearings are used in a dirty environment or where they may be exposed to fluids. Only special grease should ever be used as a ball bearing lubricant as most ordinary greases have too high an electrical conductivity causing them to self destruct once they come into contact with movable parts within the bearing assembly resulting in premature failure within as little as 2 weeks after startup.
In addition to the environmental benefits, because of their reduced friction characteristics, deep groove ball bearings are less susceptible to damage. This allows them to operate at speeds up to twice that of other bearings types. They are inexpensive, easy to install and maintain. They are also suitable for applications with high-speed rotation or require large radial loads. A wide variety of bearing sizes are available for many different purposes. For example, single row, double rows and four-point contact versions provide a large number of combinations resulting in an almost infinite number of possible designs tailored specifically for particular intricate applications.